Ice cold: Trading in illegal refrigerants

Felix Flohr, when we talk about illegality, we also have to look at the law and legislation – for example, the EU Regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases. Tell us something about this.

Felix Flohr: The original “F-Gas Regulation” was passed in 2006 and governed matters like system controls, certification of employees and tightness testing, and also put in place the first restrictions on use. A new F-Gas Regulation came into force on 1 January 2015, whose key element was the “phase-down”, in other words the reduction of fluorinated refrigerants and thus the contribution made by fluorinated gases to the greenhouse effect. This involved setting caps on the market in terms of CO2 equivalents, and the introduction of a quota system to gradually reduce the permitted volume of CO2 equivalents on the market. A baseline was set in 2015 to begin the process, followed by a reduction of seven percent in 2016-17. We are currently in the second stage, with a prescribed reduction of 37 percent, and from next year the cap will be set at a reduction of 55 percent. At that point we will therefore have only 45 percent of the baseline CO2 equivalent volume of fluorinated gases available to us.

Has the industry cooperated in developing the Regulation, and does it support the EU’s efforts to achieve reductions?

Flohr: Yes, the sector was consulted via the various professional associations, and we at Daikin Chemical Europe are very happy with the Regulation, since it enables us to plan reliably. We know that the emissions caused by these substances have to be reduced, and the quota system sets us a specific framework.

Volker Weinmann: From a device manufacturer’s position, too, the steady increase in the prescribed reductions posed a challenge to begin with, including changes in technology. That led to new products appearing on the market that work with even greater energy efficiency and also greatly assist us in our own efforts to improve climate protection.

So the F-Gas Regulation has been a kind of driver of innovation for the industry?

Flohr: You could put it that way, yes. The reduction process has also led to huge numbers of new developments in the area of refrigerants. The result is an entirely new generation of refrigerants, which have either come into being or are still in development.

Weinmann: … And it has given us a major boost in the direction of the circular economy, in other words professionally treating refrigerants already in existence in the market. This was exempted from the “phase down” that we mentioned earlier, so treatment is both financially appealing and meaningful from an environmental angle.

That is something we will look at in more detail, since the F-Gas Regulation has also led to a problem with illegally imported refrigerants.

Flohr: Unfortunately, that is true. The EU Regulation has created a closed market. As the European Commission wished, prices for refrigerants have risen. This was meant to regulate the market and create incentives to switch to refrigerants with a lower Global Warming Potential (GWP). But the discrepancy between the quite low prices in China and the higher prices in the EU now mean material is being transported to Europe illegally. We can definitely consider it a form of organized crime.

What sort of scale are we talking about?

Flohr: This year we have roughly 115 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent available. In 2018 our association commissioned a study to compare Customs data – in other words, export and import data from a range of sources. The study concluded that 19 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent had been directly imported into the EU market illegally, most of it from China. On top of this is an uncertain volume of 15 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent that was transported from China to countries neighbouring the EU, but we do not know what subsequently happened to it. There was no corresponding growth in the industry in these countries, and there has been no re-export. In total, therefore, we are talking about 34 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent that has found its way into the EU as additional, illegal refrigerant. That is almost a third of the volume that is available for the entire market.

Are you able to explain how such a huge volume can be imported unnoticed?

Flohr: It happens in different ways. Smaller quantities are genuinely smuggled – for example, using goods vehicles whose LPG tanks are filled with refrigerant to cross the EU borders. But illegal imports of refrigerants into the EU also take place on a grand scale, with entire containers being transported. One way seems to involve declaring the containers as transit imports, in which the EU is only meant to be a transit region on the way to Russia or Ukraine. But these deliveries then suddenly become “lost” somewhere. It is also a fact that Customs simply cannot keep control over everything right now. In the context of the coronavirus pandemic in particular, Customs officers obviously have other priorities than just fluorinated gases.

But someone also has to buy the goods. How does that work?

Flohr: The illegal refrigerants are actually sold via eBay or other Internet platforms. If you are a buyer, however, you should be able to tell the goods are illegal, since we are obliged by law to sell refrigerants only in returnable cylinders, which we take back again after use. But the illegal refrigerants are often sold in disposable bottles.

What is the industry’s position on this?

Flohr: There is quite an interesting discussion on this right now, driven by the Ministry of the Environment, calling for tighter monitoring of the supply chain and bringing the end users of illegal refrigerants to account. But this is still under discussion, as I mentioned.

Weinmann: We are trying to make it clear to our customers that using illegal refrigerants is also fraught with uncertainties. For example, the declarations on the container often differ from what is actually in the bottles. That means there is a greater risk of faults affecting plants serviced using these products. But as manufacturers our influence is unfortunately limited. Our customers – in other words, plant manufacturers who acquire and maintain our devices – have even had to use refrigerants purchased from the end customer for maintenance purposes. That is a clear indication for us that end users are also among the purchasers of illegal refrigerants.

What is the sector’s position on the idea of tighter controls over the supply chain?

Flohr: That is a double-edged sword: if you increase the level of documentation required, which means more administration, then the costs will go up. The bottom line is that the product becomes more expensive, which means even more incentives for illegal smuggling. It would be important not only for the authorities to perform more monitoring but also to have the tools to directly penalize the use of illegal refrigerants. In any case, the level of administration is already relatively high, since it has been a requirement since the first F-Gas Regulation to maintain log books to document which refrigerant is used in which system.

Weinmann: The initiative by the Environment Ministry as it stands is already a practical approach as I see it. But the increased documentation requirements that are being considered, and the barriers they would involve, could ultimately affect the plant manufacturers who are already acting in compliance with the law, by creating problems they cannot overcome. That must not be allowed to happen, which is why we consider the draft legislation needs to be improved.

What specific steps are you taking as a refrigerant and device manufacturer?

Weinmann: We have put in place a Europe-wide strategy to convert all systems with a particular fill limit, in other words air-conditioning systems with up to 14 kilowatts of cooling power, from R410A to R32 so we can reduce their GWP to one-third of its current value. We have also looked at the individual markets like France and Italy to see what barriers they have in terms of their national building guidelines, and tried to see what solutions exist for overcoming them. In addition, two of our VRV device series are filled with treated refrigerant ex-factory, which has saved about 150 tonnes of R410A throughout Europe, but Felix will be able to tell us more about that.

Flohr: As refrigerant manufacturers we have pursued a number of approaches. One is our investments in a closed circular system: we already had a plant that would take back CFCs, HCFCs and hydrocarbons, which we could then use to make raw materials for further chemical production. We have expanded the plant in Frankfurt am Main to enable us to treat used refrigerants to restore their original function and ensure they are every bit as good as brand new product. There is also an interesting side story to this treatment plant: it is run using excess heat from a neighbouring processing unit, which means it needs no additional power. At the same time we have developed refrigerants that can be used in the service area to replace old refrigerants with a high GWP. The substitute product R407H, which is thermodynamically and practically equivalent to R404A, is in the same safety class but its GWP is only half as high. In addition, the sector has developed a new class of refrigerants, HFOs, which have a GWP of only around 1 and are combustible to only a limited extent – which represents a really good compromise overall, enabling systems to be both safe and, more particularly, energy-efficient.

Was all this the result of the F-Gas Regulation?

Weinmann: No, but it confirmed and supported our own corporate position on the question of climate protection and the Paris climate goals. In 2018, at a corporate level, we announced our Environmental Vision 2050, under which Daikin aims to be a carbon-neutral company by 2050, and we are making major investments in the circular economy as part of our efforts to make this happen.

Flohr: I can only agree. Environmental concerns are very important to us. Our regular efforts are focused on ensuring safe refrigerants reach the market, making energy-efficient systems possible, along with a reduction in power consumption and CO2 emissions. We also believe in the concept of the circular economy, and we are happy with every refrigerant we can take back for treatment. For us, that is the future.

Can you put that in perspective for us? When will the proportion of treated refrigerants on the market exceed that of new product?

Flohr: That is hard to say right now, but from 2030, according to the F-Gas Regulation, we will only have 21 percent of the original volume from 2015 still available. It will happen some time between now and then. Thanks to our huge investments in plant technology, in any case, we are well equipped to treat used refrigerants to make them accessible to the market again.

Let us return briefly to the question of environmental and climate protection. Why are you so strongly committed in these areas?

Weinmann: Our entire company is backing the goals of the Paris Agreement. We are also adhering to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, to which we are contributing as part of our business activities. Our parent company is therefore driving forward our commitment to environmental and climate protection at a global level. And as part of our Environmental Vision 2050, we have of course undertaken to be carbon-neutral by 2050, not only in terms of product manufacture but throughout our entire product life cycle. That is unusual in this sector to begin with.

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F-Gas regulation – Toughening up on refrigerant gases in 2020

Two months into 2020 and tougher legislation and punishments are coming into play for the refrigerants gases business in the wake of both the F-Gas regulation and the illegal imports associated with it.

With the confirmation of the UK’s withdrawal from the EU – ‘Brexit’ – last month, there are also question marks over how the UK tackles its adherence to the F-Gas regulations.

The EU fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-Gas) regulations are a central part of the ‘European Green Deal’ to limit climate change. F-Gases include refrigerants known as HFCs, which are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs).

The regulations aim to stimulate a switch from F-Gases with a high global warming potential (GWP) to more modern gases with a lower GWP using a mix of end-use bans and quotas. These quotas were introduced in 2015 and have progressive reductions through to 2030 to cap the environmental impact of F-Gases used in the EU.

In 2018 and 2019, however, the refrigeration sector media was full of stories about the illegal import of F-Gases into the EU outside of this quota system.

A-Gas urges users to switch to reclaimed refrigerants

These additional products were both undermining the intent of the legislation and causing a slump in F-Gas pricing in the EU. In the 12-month run up to the EU import quota reduction on 1stJanuary 2018, the prices for HFCs such as R134a and R404A increased approximately 10-fold. At this price point, the risk-to-reward ratio for smuggling activities was highly favourable and sucked in illegal imports estimated to be as much as 30% of total EU demand.

The increased supply led to falling prices and at the end of 2019, common HFCs were trading at about 30% below levels in 2018. Furthermore, throughout 2019 there were highly publicised cases of smuggled goods seizures and prosecutions leading to fines. As the rewards are falling the risks rising, many industry participants expect a reduction in illegal F-Gas trade in 2020.

Getting tougher on illegal trade in 2020

Most countries in the European Union (EU) had implemented legislation to cascade the EU F-Gas regulations into national law. At the beginning of 2019, however, neither Romania nor Italy had legislated at a local level.

Both are EU border states with extensive coastlines representing potential import routes for F-Gases from major chemical producing countries such as China.

On 17th January this year, tough legislation came into force in Italy that could see fines of up to €100,000 for breaches of the EU F-Gas regulations.

Alessandro Borri, Director – Sales & Marketing at General Gas Kryon® Refrigerants in Italy, spoke about the impact this legislation is already having. “In 2018 and 2019, illegally imported refrigerant gas cylinders were being offered onto the Italian market through non-conventional channels such as social media websites.We tracked a lot of these adverts and used our communication channels to point out the quality, safety and environmental risks of purchasing these illegally imported products.”

“For example, they are often contained in disposable cylinders (which are banned in the EU) or in refillable cylinders that do not have the required TPED safety approval. Furthermore, when analysed using laboratory instruments, most of them are revealed to have poor quality with high humidity, out-of-spec percentages of the blend components or high amounts of non-condensable gases. They also lack the required CLP safety labelling and are supplied without a safety data sheet and emergency telephone number, which are mandatory by law. Each one of those points falls short of the practices that reputable suppliers such as GeneralGas adhere to.”

Borri continued, “In the past, there was no legislation in Italy to punish this behaviour. However, since the new legislation has come into force in Italy, our market intelligence has shown an 80% reduction in the number of offers for illegally imported refrigerant gases on these social media sites.”

“The integrity hotline, which is operated by EQS on behalf of the European Fluorocarbons Technical Committee (EFCTC), is also a good idea. This all adds up to being great news for legitimate businesses and the successful implementation of the EU’s flagship environmental policy.”

Policy at a regional level sets the future direction

Fabrizio Codella, who works in the Italian refrigeration equipment supply sector, said that, “the changes in Italy are a good antidote to illegal trade and will shut one more door into the EU.”

He added that, “At a regional level there are also loud noises being made to send strong signals that the EU is getting tough.”

Codella pointed to a conference on the fight against illegal imports of refrigerant gases into the EU, held on 22nd and 23rd January as an example. The event was organised by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) in cooperation with two EC departments, DG TAXUD and DG CLIMA, thereby bringing together the financial and environmental stakeholders to accelerate the resolution of this illegal F-Gas trade problem.”

Through the EFCTC, Honeywell and other leading refrigerant gas producers have been in dialogue with the EC to consider bolstering F-Gas enforcement with measures such as better border controls and real time access to customs import data and quota registrations to combat the illegal import of HFCs.

Speaking for Honeywell’s Advanced Materials division, Lee Hermitage – EMEA Marketing Director, Fluorine Products – said, “We are pleased that the EC recognises the illegal import issue, however at the same time believe there is still a long way to go in tackling it. Many sources have estimated that 2018 saw illegal imports at 25-30% of the total EU import quota level. We believe that this illegal trade did reduce a little in 2019, but we are sure that much more needs to be done.”

“Clearly, additional disruptive measures such as tougher financial and custodial penalties for offenders and better training of customs officers will be needed to put a stop to illegal imports soon. Ultimately, the EC and the member states must continue to work together and apply focus here to ensure that climate protection goals are not undermined by illegal trade.”

It’s thought that product bans from 1st January (2020) will also drive change.

Anybody who has bought a new car in the EU since 2017, for example, will most likely have purchased a model with an air conditioning system filled with the modern HFO type of refrigerant gas knownas R1234yf. This is a low GWP alternative to its fore-runner, the HFC called R134a. The change here was driven by mobile air conditioning (MAC) regulations which put a cap on the maximum GWP of the refrigerant gases used in automotive air-conditioning units.

Reformation in refrigerants – F-Gases, the MAC Directive and the future

To force the transition from higher GWP HFC refrigerants to lower GWP products, such as carbon dioxide, propane, HFC/HFO blends or HFOs in other applications apart from MAC, the F-Gas regulation employs a mix of import quota reductions and similar end-use bans. The most recent ban became effective on 1stJanuary 2020 for larger stationery refrigeration systems with a charge of more than approximately 10kg of refrigerants such as R404A or R507C.

“For sure the market for recovered and regenerated refrigerants will increase because the ban only covers the sale of so called ‘virgin’ molecules,” reflected Codella. “Whilst there are a few suitable drop-in replacements for R404A, such as R448A, R449A and R452A there are not so many choices to replace R507C and I can imagine that recovered R507C will be in particularly high demand.”

Speaking from the perspective of a refrigerant gas distributor, Borri concurred, “In 2018 and 2019 refrigeration service engineers continued to use high GWP gases such as R404A instead of the lower GWP retrofit gases such as R448A. Since January of this year, we have seen a big difference and our sales of the retrofit gases have increased by 30% compared to the same period last year. We believe that this is directly related to the 1stJanuary end use ban on virgin R404A in these larger systems – the legislation is clearly driving practice in the right direction.”

Honeywell’s Hermitage sees both challenges and solutions. His view is that, “In recent years, there has indeed been a lot of R404A pulled out of large supermarket refrigeration systems as they have switched to more modern gases. However, there is simply not enough regeneration capacity in the EU to clean this recovered R404A gas for re-use.”

As an alternative to using regenerated high GWP materials, he also points to evidence of long-term thinking in the sector.

“One of our alternatives for the R404A refrigerant gas is called Solstice®N-40. It’s our proprietary name for the zeotropic blend of R448A with a GWP of 1273. Because it is a drop-in replacement, its convenience will appeal to many operators. However, we anticipate that some end-users will leapfrog these transitional drop-in replacements and move straight to the end-game with a product such as Solstice®L40-X, also known as R455A. Changing to this refrigerant gas would require the operator to invest in new refrigeration equipment, but the financial and environmental pay-back through improved energy efficiency coupled with the low GWP makes this choice compelling.”

Brexit might mean more complexity

With his office location in England, Hermitage is well placed to share an opinion on how the departure of the UK from the EU on 31stJanuary this year will impact the EU F-Gas quotas. In short, he anticipates continuity for the environmental policies, although exports from the UK to EU member states are likely to become more complex.

He said, “The simplest outcome would be for the UK to stay in the EU F-Gas quota system and abide by the F-Gas regulations. However, if the UK takes a different approach, one potential outcome would be to operate a parallel quota system, with similar reductions based on a starting point set at the current level of EU quotas owned by UK entities.”

“In spirit, nothing would change,” he concluded, “but the trade of F-Gases and refrigeration equipment that is pre-charged with these gases would become more complex.”

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High efficiency and low GWP drop-in replacements for R404A and R22

As part of its continuous research into replacements for Ozone Depleting Substances and low Greenhouse Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants, Refrigerant Solutions Ltd (RSL) has developed non flammable and energy efficient drop-in alternatives for both R22 and R404A. These new products are RS-50 (R442A), which replaces R404A and RS-70, which replaces R22.

RS-50 (R442A) has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of less than one half of R404A together with significantly higher efficiency capacity. Independent university tests carried out under identical conditions on RS-50 (R442A) and five other refrigerants, including R404A, R407A, R507, R407F and R22, demonstrated the considerably higher energy efficiency and cooling power of RS-50 compared to the other refrigerants:


R407F R407A RS-50 R507 R404A R22
P evaporation

( bar)

1.35 1.3 1.35 1.7 1.64 1.27
P condensation (bar) 16.1 14.8 16.2 17 16.05 12.68
P high/P low 11.93 11.33 12 10 9.78 9.98
Discharge temp (°C) 85 82 83 79 78 85
Cooling capacity (W) 1252 935 1477 1090 992 1263
Coefficient of Performance 1.76 1.6 1.94 1.52 1.37 1.89



The high energy efficiency and capacity of RS-50 has been confirmed in a series of field trials, eg replacing R404A with RS-50 at supermarkets Auchan Meriadeck, Bordeaux; 8 a Huit,  Lambres Lez Douai; Sorli Discau Barcelona and others, and at McVities, Glasgow and S K Foods, Middlesbrough. In all these cases, energy efficiencies exceeding R404A compared to R404A were experienced.

RS-50 can be used to replace R404A in both new and existing equipment. No changes to the hardware are necessary. Because the properties of RS-50 are similar to R404A, it is suitable for use in many of the applications where R404A is commonly found, including supermarket display cases, cold stores, freezers, refrigerated transport, ice machines, cold storage, transportation of foodstuffs, freezer cabinets, beer cellars, freeze dryers and environmental test chambers. R22 is also used in many of these refrigeration applications, where RS-50 can be a suitable replacement.

RS-70 is a non-flammable drop-in replacement for R22, which has been designed to have the lowest possible Global GWP consistent with high thermodynamic performance having a similar cooling capacity and Coefficient of Performance (COP) as R22. Consequently, RS-70 can be used to replace R22 in both air conditioning and refrigeration applications across the temperature range where R22 is commonly used. RS-70 is compatible both with the traditional mineral and alkylbenzene oils, and also the polyol ester lubricants, so that there is no need to change the existing lubricant in the system when retrofitting to R22. With its high technical performance, compatibility with all lubricants and low GWP, RS-70 is an excellent choice to replace R22 as the end of R22 approaches as mandated under the F-gas regulation in the European Union.

The GWP of RS-70 is lower than all other drop-in replacements for R22 available on the market, including R438A, R417A, R422B, R422D, R417B and others. The GWP of RS-70 is also lower than R427A, R407A, R407F and R421A. However, this has not been achieved by sacrificing performance since RS-70 is similar to R22 in terms of cooling capacity, COP, mass flow, compression ratio and discharge pressure while having a lower discharge temperature. Accordingly, RS-70 is an excellent choice to replace R22 in the majority of applications where R22 is found

– See more at:

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Addition Of Subclass 2L Refrigerants

Addition Of Subclass 2L Refrigerants Proposed For ASHRAE Refrigerant Safety Standard

Dec 9, 2015

Contact: Jodi Scott
Public Relations

ATLANTA – Industry input is being sought into a proposal to modify portions of ASHRAE’s refrigeration safety standard to incorporate subclass 2L flammability classifications.

Addendum d to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2013, Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems, is open for public comment until Jan. 18, 2016. To comment or learn more, visit

Standard 15 specifies safe design, construction, installation, and operation of refrigeration systems.

The 2010 edition of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants,  added an optional Subclass 2L to the existing Class 2 flammability classification of refrigerants. This change was intended to separate single component and blended refrigerants that are difficult to ignite and sustain a flame, from other Class 2 (and Class 3) flammable refrigerants.

“The expectation was that some of the Class 2L refrigerants would be commercialized and used as substitutes for Class A1 refrigerants that are in use today,” Dennis Dorman, chair of the Standard 15 committee, said. “Refrigerants in use today may come under regulatory pressure due to their relatively higher global warming potential (GWP).  But to do this without major economic impact, Class 2L would have to be safely applied without the stringent application limitations imposed by Standard 15 on other flammable refrigerants. In other words, in order to be broadly applied, Class 2L refrigerants would need to be treated more like Class 1 than Class 2 or Class 3.”

At the start of its deliberations, the committee discovered that there was almost no science to support rules changes, let alone relaxation, of Class 2 requirements, according to Dorman.  In July 2011, a first public review of the proposed addendum was made available with numerous comments received. Since that time, the committee has been addressing the technical issues identified from that review.

Dorman noted that Standard 15 covers the full range of applications from residential to commercial to industrial applications. As such, there is an unusual degree of complexity in considering appropriate rules for each.

Now, after almost four years of research and other supporting activities conducted by industry partners, the committee has much of the technical information to support proposed rules changes to Standard 15.
“With this public review, we are seeking suggestions for new, unusual or potentially controversial elements of the proposed addendum, which the committee believes would benefit from increased public input prior to finalizing the draft for its first formal public review,” he said. “Additionally we want to make sure that we do not overlook important safety aspects that may come from various users of the standard, both domestic and international.”

ASHRAE, founded in 1894, is a global society advancing human well-being through sustainable technology for the built environment. The Society and its more than 54,000 members worldwide focus on building systems, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, refrigeration and sustainability. Through research, standards writing, publishing, certification and continuing education, ASHRAE shapes tomorrow’s built environment today. More information can be found at

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ASHRAE Refrigerant Designations

ASHRAE Refrigerant Designations

The tables contained on this page list approved refrigerant numbers from ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2013, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, the latest edition of Standard 34, which describes a shorthand way of naming refrigerants and assigns safety classifications based on toxicity and flammability data.*
Further information can be found in the latest version of Standard 34, available in the ASHRAE bookstore, and its published addenda, available on the Standards Addenda page.

Methane Series
Ethane Series
Cyclic Organic Compounds
Miscellaneous Organic Compounds
Nitrogen Compounds
Inorganic Compounds
Unsaturated Organic Compounds
Refrigerant Blends


Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Methane Series
11 trichlorofluoromethane CCl 3F
12 dichlorodifluoromethane CCl 2F 2
12B1 bromochlorodifluoromethane CBrClF 2
13 chlorotrifluoromethane CClF 3
13B1 bromotrifluoromethane CBrF 3
14e tetrafluoromethane (carbon tetrafluoride) CF 4
21 dichlorofluoromethane CHCl 2F
22 chlorodifluoromethane CHClF 2
23 trifluoromethane CHF 3
30 dichloromethane (methylene chloride) CH 2Cl 2
31 chlorofluoromethane CH 2ClF
32 difluoromethane (methylene fluoride) CH 2F 2
40 chloromethane (methyl chloride) CH 3Cl
41 fluoromethane (methyl fluoride) CH 3F
50 methane CH 4

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Ethane Series
113 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane CCl 2FCClF 2
114 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoromethane CClF 2CClF 2
115 chloropentafluoroethane CClF 2CF 3
116 hexafluoroethane CF 3CF 3
123 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane CHCl 2CF 3
124 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane CHClFCF 3
125 pentafluoroethane CHF 2CF 3
134a 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane CH 2FCF 3
141b 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane CH 3CCl 2F
142b 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane CH 3CClF 2
143a 1,1,1-trifluoroethane CH 3CF 3
152a 1,1-difluoroethane CH 3CHF 2
170 ethane CH 3CH 3

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
E170 Dimethyl Ether CH3OCH3

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
218 octafluoropropane CF 3CF 2CF 3
227ea 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane CF 3CHFCF 3
236fa 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane CF 3CH 2CF 3
245fa 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane CHF 2CH 2CF 3
290 propane CH 3CH 2CH 3

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Cyclic Organic Compounds
C318 octafluorocyclobutane -(CF 2) 4

Miscellaneous Organic Compounds
Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
600 butane CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 3 A3
600a isobutane CH(CH 3) 2CH 3 A3
601 Pentane CH 3CH 2CH 2 CH 2CH3
601a Isopentane CH(CH 3) 2 CH 2CH 3
oxygen compounds
610 ethyl ether CH 3CH 2 OCH 2CH 3
611 methyl formate HCOOCH 3
sulfur compounds
620           (Reserved for future assignment)

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Nitrogen Compounds
630 methyl amine CH 3NH 2
631 ethyl amine CH 3CH 2(NH 2)

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Inorganic Compounds
702 hydrogen H 2
704 helium He
717 ammonia NH 3
718 water H 2O
720 neon Ne
728 nitrogen N 2
732 oxygen O 2
740 argon Ar
744 carbon dioxide CO 2
744A nitrous oxide N 2O
764 sulfur dioxide SO 2

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Unsaturated Organic Compounds
1150 ethene (ethylene) CH2=CH2
1234yf 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene CF3CF=CH2
1234ze(E) trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene CF3CH=CHF
1270 propene (propylene) CH3CH=CH 2

Refrigerant Blends

Refrigerant Composition (Mass % )
400 R-12/114 (must be specified)
401A R-22/152a/124 (53.0/13.0/34.0)
401B R-22/152a/124 (61.0/11.0/28.0
401C R-22/152a/124 (33.0/15.0/52.0)
402A R-125/290/22 (60.0/2.0/38.0)
402B R-125/290/22 (38.0/2.0/60.0)
403A R-290/22/218 (5.0/75.0/20.0)
403B R-290/22/218 (5.0/56.0/39.0)
404A R-125/143a/134a (44.0/52.0/4.0)
405A R-22/152a/142b/C318 (45.0/7.0/5.5/42.5)
406A R-22/600a/142b (55.0/4.0/41.0)
407A R-32/125/134a (20.0/40.0/40.0)
407B R-32/125/134a (10.0/70.0/20.0)
407C R-32/125/134a (23.0/25.0/52.0)
407D R-32/125/134a (15.0/15.0/70.0)
407E R-32/125/134a (25.0/15.0/60.0)
407F R-32/125/134a (30.0/30.0/40.0)
408A R-125/143a/22 (7.0/46.0/47.0)
409A R-22/124/142b (60.0/25.0/15.0)
409B R-22/124/142b (65.0/25.0/10.0)
410A R-32/125 (50.0/50.0)
410B R-32/125 (45.0/55.0)
411A R-1270/22/152a) (1.5/87.5/11.0)
411B R-1270/22/152a (3.0/94.0/3.0)
412A R-22/218/143b (70.0/5.0/25.0 k
413A R-218/134a/600a (9.0/88.0/3.0)
414A R-22/124/600a/142b (51.0/28.5/4.0/16.5)
414B R-22/124/600a/142b (50.0/39.0/1.5/9.5)
415A R-22/152a (82.0/18.0)
415B R-22/152a (25.0/75.0)
416A R-134a/124/600 (59.0/39.5/1.5)
417A R-125/134a/600 (46.6/50.0/3.4)
417B R-125/134a/600 (79.0/18.3/2.7)
417C R-125/134a/600 (19.5/78.8/1.7)
418A R-290/22/152a (1.5/96.0/2.5)
419A R-125/134a/E170 (77.0/19.0/4.0)
419B R-125/134a/E170 (48.5/48.0/3.5)
420A R-134a/142b (88.0/12.0)
421A R-125/134a (58.0/42.0)
421B R-125/134a (85.0/15.0)
422A R-125/134a/600a (85.1/11.5/3.4)
422B R-125/134a/600a (55.0/42.0/3.0)
422C R-125/134a/600a (82.0/15.0/3.0)
422D R-125/134a/600a (65.1/31.5/3.4)
422E R-125/134a/600a (58.0/39.3/2.7)
423A 134a/227ea (52.5/47.5)
424A R-125/134a/600a/600/601a (50.5/47.0/0.9/1.0/0.6)
425A R-32/134a/227ea (18.5/69.5/12)
426A R-125/134a/600/601a (5.1/93.0/1.3/0.6)
427A R-32/125/143a/134a (15.0/25.0/10.0/50.0)
428A R-125/143a/290/600a (77.5/20.0/0.6/1.9)
429A R-E170/152a/600a (60.0/10.0/30.0)
430A R-152a/600a (76.0/24.0)
431A R-290/152a (71.0/29.0)
432A R-1270/E170 (80.0/20.0)
433A R-1270/290 (30.0/70.0)
433B R-1270/290 (5.0/95.0)
433C R-1270/290 (25.0/75.0)
434A R-125/143a/134a/600a
435A R-E170/152a (80.0/20.0)
436A R-290/600a (56.0/44.0)
436B R-290/600a (52.0/48.0)
437A R-125/134a/600/601 (19.5/78.5/1.4/0.6)
438A R-32/125/134a/600/601a (8.5/45.0/44.2/1.7/0.6)
439A R-32/125/600a (50.0/47.0/3.0)
440A R-290/134a/152a (0.6/1.6/97.8)
441A R-170/290/600a/600 (3.1/54.8/6.0/36.1)
442A R-32/125/134a/152a/227ea (31.0/31.0/30.0/3.0/5.0)
443A R-1270/290/600a (55.0/40.0/5.0)
444A R-32/152a/1234ze(E) (12.0/5.0/83.0)
445A R-744/134a/1234ze(E) (6.0/9.0/85.0)

Refrigerant Composition (Mass % )
500 R-12/152a (73.8/26.2)
501 R-22/12 (75.0/25.0)
502 R-22/115 (48.8/51.2)
503 R-23/13 (40.1/59.9)
504 R-32/115 (48.2/51.8)
505 R-12/31 (78.0/22.0)
506 R-31/114 (55.1/44.9)
507A R-125/143a (50.0/50.0)
508A R-23/116 (39.0/61.0)
508B R-23/116 (46.0/54.0)
509A R-22/218 (44.0/56.0)
510A R-E170/600a (88.0/12.0)
511A R-290/152a (95.0/5.0)
512A R-134a/152a (5.0/95.0)



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US EPA Targets High-GWP Refrigerants in SNAP Proposal

US EPA Targets High-GWP Refrigerants in SNAP Proposal

R-134a, -404A, and -507 Face Proposed Use Restrictions in 2016

The US government is proposing to restrict the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants R-134a, -404A and -507 in certain new and retrofit retail food applications.

On Aug. 9, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published “40 CFR Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Change of Listing Status for Certain Substitutes Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program; Proposed Rule” in the Federal Register.

The rule deems certain HFC refrigerants unacceptable in specific applications on or after Jan. 1, 2016. If implemented, the ruling would impact:

• R-507 and -404A for “new and retrofit retail food refrigeration (including stand-alone equipment, condensing units, direct supermarket systems, and indirect supermarket systems) and new and retrofit vending machines.”

• R–227ea, –407B, –421B, –422A, –422C, –422D, –428A, and –434A for “new and retrofit retail food refrigeration (including direct supermarket systems and indirect supermarket systems).”

• R-134a “and certain other HFC refrigerant blends for new stand-alone retail food refrigeration and new vending machines.”

A Proposal for Now

The proposal is just that — a proposal. The agency is accepting comments through Oct. 6, after which it would issue a final ruling. The proposal is based on concerns about the perceived high-global warming potential (GWP) of the listed refrigerants. All are used within the retail food sector, where leak rates for equipment can be as high as 30 percent, although that sector has made significant strides in recent years to reduce those rates.

The proposal is also based on the EPA’s contention that acceptable alternatives are available. These include low-GWP HFCs, hydrocarbons (HCs), and CO?.

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